Pay attention to these things after the flood!

17-Sep-2021 AOGRAND
Since the beginning of summer, continuous heavy rainfall has occurred in many parts of our country, and some provinces and cities have been hit by floods. As the old saying goes: "After a catastrophe, there must be a catastrophe." This means that after major natural disasters such as torrential rains, floods, and earthquakes, various infectious disease epidemics are prone to occur, and epidemic prevention work must be done.

Which infectious diseases are prone to spread after floods?
After the occurrence of floods, the risk factors for infectious diseases have increased significantly. On the one hand, water pollution, concentration of people, mosquito breeding, and reduced immunity due to fatigue have increased the risk of exposure to infectious diseases for the affected population. On the other hand, depending on the season, my country's floods mostly occur in summer, and the air is relatively fluid, which makes the transmission route wide and rapid, which promotes the risk of infectious disease outbreaks. The infectious diseases that are prone to occur during floods mainly include intestinal infectious diseases, respiratory infectious diseases, natural foci infectious diseases and skin diseases.
Intestinal infectious diseases
Intestinal infectious diseases are diseases in which pathogens invade the intestines orally and cause diarrhea and/or other organs and systemic infections. Intestinal infectious diseases are the main impact of flood disasters on health. Mainly caused by bacteria and viruses, and spread through water, food, and contact. Water pollution caused by floods is one of the main causes of intestinal infectious diseases. Common intestinal infectious diseases in the disaster area mainly include bacterial dysentery, cholera, typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever, other bacterial infectious diarrhea diseases, viral diarrhea diseases, and parasitic diarrhea diseases. Other intestinal infectious diseases also include hepatitis A, hepatitis E, hand, foot and mouth disease and so on.
Respiratory Infectious Diseases
After floods, the incidence of respiratory infectious diseases is second only to intestinal infectious diseases. Respiratory infections include influenza, pharyngitis, pneumonia, etc., which are likely to cause outbreaks among people living in collectives. There are many causes of respiratory infectious diseases, including bacteria, viruses, chlamydia and mycoplasma, etc. Patients with infectious diseases are the main source of infection of respiratory infectious diseases. The sources of bacteria are mainly lakes, rivers and soil.
Natural foci disease
Natural foci-borne diseases refer to diseases that exist for a long time under natural conditions, are prevalent among wild animals, and can infect humans under certain conditions. Natural foci diseases are significantly affected by natural factors. Changes in the natural environment during floods, including temperature, humidity, water level, and vector habitat changes, have affected the growth, reproduction and life of pathogens, sources of infection, media, and hosts.
On the other hand, the poor living conditions, malnutrition, and mental and psychological depression of the people in the disaster area during the occurrence of natural disasters reduce the body’s resistance to diseases and damage the health and disease prevention measures in the disaster area, which can easily lead to the epidemic and outbreak of natural epidemic-borne diseases. . The natural focal infectious diseases that need to be mainly prevented after the flood are hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (epidemic hemorrhagic fever), leptospirosis, Japanese encephalitis, malaria, schistosomiasis, plague, anthrax, brucella Sickness etc.

Skin disease
After the flood disaster, the incidence of skin diseases is very high, which mainly refers to the infection of human limbs caused by insect bites, sewage immersion and other reasons. Skin diseases during floods include fungal skin diseases, impetigo and eczema. After heavy rains, there are many bacteria and germs in the stagnant water on the ground. If they are soaked in dirty water for a long time, especially if the skin of the feet is broken, the bacteria may enter the subcutaneous lymphatic vessels from the skin wound and cause skin infection.
How to prevent infectious diseases after floods?
After the flood disaster occurs, the water supply system is damaged, food safety is difficult to guarantee, living conditions are destroyed, the chance of contact between people and disease vectors increases, population mobility increases, population resistance decreases, and health services accessibility decreases, etc. , All kinds of infectious diseases are extremely prone to occur.

The Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention reminds everyone to take the following ten protective measures:
1. Drinking water sanitation. Do not drink raw water, only drink boiled water or bottled water or barreled water that meets hygienic standards; water equipment must be clean and often emptied for cleaning; temporary drinking well water, river water, lake water, pond water, etc. must be used Disinfection; water with high turbidity and serious pollution must be clarified with alum before disinfection; drinking water disinfectants (bleaching tablets, disinfection effervescent tablets) must be stored in a dark, dry, and cool place. If the tap water pipe or faucet is contaminated, the pipe should be fully cleaned after the water returns, and the surface of the faucet should be wiped and disinfected with a chlorine-containing disinfectant.
2. Food sanitation. Food must be cooked thoroughly, raw and cooked separately, tableware must be cleaned and disinfected before use, and hands must be washed before eating; do not eat food that has become spoiled or soaked in floods; do not eat drowned or sickly dead poultry, livestock, and aquatic products; no Eat leftovers, do not eat raw or cold food; do not buy food from stalls that do not have food business licenses.
3. Environmental sanitation. Thoroughly clean up the indoor and outdoor environment, first clean up, then disinfect, and then move back. Remove stagnant water, remove sludge and garbage; open doors and windows, ventilate, clean furniture, clean up indoor objects, and disinfect room walls and floors if necessary; renovate toilets, clean toilets, and repair livestock pens. Do not urinate and defecate anywhere, feces, excrement and garbage should be discharged in designated areas.
4. Control of vector organisms. Install screen doors, screen windows, mosquito nets and other anti-mosquito and fly facilities in the residence; it is recommended to use mosquito coils, aerosol cans, fly swatters and other household anti-mosquito measures; flood guards should be equipped with anti-mosquito caps, wear long-sleeved underwear, and be exposed The parts can be sprayed with repellent. High-efficiency and safe anticoagulant rodenticides should be used to kill rodents; after rodents are killed, the dead rodents should be searched for in time, buried or burned in a concentrated manner; when rodents died or migrated due to flooding, the parasites on the body surface should escape or escape. Spray insecticides at residential settlements to eliminate free fleas and other parasites that leave the rat's body, make rodents and kill them. When vector organisms such as mosquitoes, flies, and mice increase abnormally, report to local government departments in time.
5. Clean hands. Rub your eyes with no hands, especially dirty hands. Each person's towel and washbasin should be used separately. If you have to share a washbasin with a patient with acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (commonly known as pink eye), let a healthy person use it first, and then use it after the patient. Wash the washbasin with soap when it is used up, and soak and disinfect with disinfectant.
6. Prevent skin ulceration. Keep your skin clean and dry, and wipe your sweat with a towel. You can pour some prickly heat powder on the skin folds. When working in the water, take a break every 1 to 2 hours, dry your feet, and expose to the sun for a while. Always wash your feet and wear dry shoes after working out of the water. When the skin of the feet is found to be ruptured and has a tendency to aggravate, it should not be put into the water temporarily if the circumstances permit. Try to wear long boots. People with foot skin diseases should take less water.
7. Prevent schistosomiasis. In areas where schistosomiasis is endemic, not contacting infected water is the best way to prevent schistosomiasis. Before touching the infected water, apply protective ointment to the parts that may come into contact with the infected water. Under the premise of preventing high temperature and heatstroke, you can wear protective equipment, such as rubber boots, rubber gloves, rubber pants, etc. After contact with the infected water, they should take the initiative to go to the schistosomiasis control department for inspection, and the infection should be treated early.
8. See a doctor in time. If you feel unwell, seek medical treatment in time. Especially patients with fever and diarrhea should seek medical help as soon as possible. The second is to follow the doctor's advice, cooperate with infectious disease isolation, and pay attention to the use of drugs.
9. Mental health. Acute stress reactions are prone to occur after a disaster, and most of them are significantly relieved within 30 days. Maintain a positive mental state and a good life pattern. If you have not recovered for more than a month, you should seek help from a psychiatrist or consult a psychological crisis intervention agency.
10. Nursing for special populations. Create a better environment for the elderly, the weak, the young and the sick as much as possible to reduce disability and death.
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