Can mosquito bites spread AIDS?

07-Sep-2021 AOGRAND
People are generally aware of the fact that “AIDS can be transmitted through blood.” Many people worry that a mosquito that has been bitten by an AIDS patient will be infected with AIDS if it bites another person. Will the mosquito bite spread AIDS? Let's first understand AIDS and its transmission methods.
AIDS, the full name is "Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome", it is an infectious disease with a very high fatality rate caused by HIV, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The HIV virus invades the human body and can destroy the human body's immune system, resulting in a significant decrease in the number of CD4 cells that have immune coordination effects in the body. The clinical manifestation is the gradual loss of the body's ability to resist diseases, and finally the patient dies of opportunistic infectious diseases or tumors, which is an infectious disease with a high mortality rate.

Ways of transmission of AIDS
AIDS is spread mainly through mother-to-child transmission, sexual transmission and blood transmission.
1. Mother-to-child transmission
If the mother is HIV-infected, then she is likely to infect her child during pregnancy, childbirth, or through breastfeeding. However, if the mother takes anti-AIDS drugs during pregnancy, the baby’s HIV infection may be much lower and may even be completely healthy. Mothers with HIV must not breastfeed their children.

2. Sexual transmission
In daily life, many AIDS patients are basically infected through sex. Therefore, if some people have multiple sexual partners in their lives or have sex too early, the risk of contracting AIDS will be higher. Moreover, if people do not pay attention to hygiene and safety when they have sex, they will also allow the HIV virus to take advantage of it, invading the body and attacking the healthy immune system of the body. Especially lymphocytes, if our lymphocytes are affected by HIV, they will lose the most basic immune function, which will lead to easy infection of various diseases.
3. Blood transmission
Blood transmission is the most direct way to get AIDS. It is very dangerous to input blood contaminated by the virus and use syringes, acupuncture needles, and tooth extraction tools that are contaminated by blood but not strictly disinfected. In addition, if you share an unsterilized syringe with an HIV-infected person, you will also be infected by the virus remaining in the needle.
Can mosquito bites spread AIDS?
Since AIDS can be spread through blood, will it spread after mosquito bites? There is currently no evidence that HIV can be transmitted through mosquito bites. The reasons are as follows:

1. HIV is digested in mosquitoes
Pathogens must remain active during the process of being carried by mosquitoes before they can be transmitted between hosts. If the mosquito digests the pathogen, the virus will not be transmitted to the next host. In general, mosquito-like viruses have many ways to avoid being decomposed. Some viruses are immune to the digestive enzymes of mosquitoes. Most viruses will quickly penetrate the mosquito’s stomach to avoid being broken down by powerful digestive enzymes. The malaria pathogen can live in the mosquito’s stomach for 9 to 12 days and complete the necessary transformations in the process. Encephalitis pathogens have an incubation period of 10 to 25 days inside mosquitoes, during which they divide and multiply in large numbers. Studies have shown that HIV is digested in mosquitoes together with blood. Therefore, the mosquitoes will digest all the pathogens within one or two days after sucking the blood of HIV infection, and there is no possibility of re-infection. Since the virus can no longer reproduce and enter the digestive glands of mosquitoes, HIV cannot be transmitted from a host, so the theory that most mosquito parasites are transmitted in this way cannot prove that mosquitoes can infect HIV.
2. Every time the mosquito sucks blood, the HIV contained in it is not enough to transmit
The content of pathogens in the blood is high enough to allow the virus to spread between different hosts, that is, enough pathogens to make the infection go on. The minimum number of pathogens required for different infectious diseases is not the same. The level of HIV in the blood is lower than the level of all known mosquito infections. Infected people with 10 units of virus in their blood are rare, and 70% to 80% of infected people have very little virus in their blood.
Data shows that after a mosquito has absorbed 1,000 units of HIV, the probability that it can infect one unit of the virus to the next host is one in ten million. Obviously, an uninfected person needs to be bitten by a mosquito that has sucked the blood of an infected person 10 million times to be infected with a unit of HIV, and a mosquito that has consumed enough HIV-positive pathogens is still not enough to infect AIDS. In short, the possibility of spreading AIDS in this way is basically non-existent.
What diseases can be transmitted by mosquitoes?
Although mosquito bites do not transmit HIV, some diseases can be transmitted by mosquitoes. At present, there are more than 60 species of arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes. Only malaria, Japanese encephalitis and dengue fever species have been found in my country. They are all transmitted through mosquitoes. The thorn bites and spreads.
1. Epidemic Japanese encephalitis: The main endemic areas are in the Far East and Southeast Asia. It can be seen in South China, North China, and Northeast China, and the onset is concentrated in July, August, and September. It is caused by a virus and transmitted by mosquitoes; it is clinically onset, with features such as high fever, disturbance of consciousness, convulsions, tonic spasm and meningeal irritation, and severe patients often have sequelae after illness. After the Japanese encephalitis virus is inhaled into the mosquito's body with the blood, it first multiplies in the intestinal tract, then migrates to the salivary glands, and is transmitted to humans or animals after being bitten. Japanese encephalitis mainly occurs in infants and young children, which is caused by the virus using the imperfect immune system of infants and young children.
2. Dengue fever: an acute infectious disease caused by dengue virus and transmitted by mosquitoes. Dengue fever is mainly manifested by fever, skin rash, severe aches and pains of muscles and bones and joints, lymphadenopathy, leukopenia, etc., and has a low case fatality rate; Dengue hemorrhagic fever is mainly characterized by fever, rash, bleeding, and shock, and has a high case fatality rate.
3. Malaria: It is a well-known disease spread by mosquitoes. Malaria is transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes. It is an infectious disease caused by the transmission of Plasmodium. It is more common in summer and can be ill all year round. It is more common in the Yangtze River Basin and its southern regions, and can spread all over the country. The incidence is less in northern areas. Clinical manifestations are: intermittent chills, high fever, sweating, swelling, anemia, clinically can be divided into three types of vivax malaria, third vivax malaria and falciparum malaria.
It is estimated that more than 700 million people spread diseases each year by mosquitoes, causing millions of deaths. These disease outbreaks are most common in Africa, Asia, Central America and South America, where disease prevalence, temperate climates and insufficient mosquito control provide greater opportunities for mosquitoes to transmit diseases.
Although mosquitoes can transmit diseases, modern medical technology also has corresponding treatment and prevention methods, but mosquito prevention, especially for infants with imperfect immune systems, should do a good job of mosquito prevention to avoid the harm of mosquito bites. Therefore, how to avoid mosquito bites is still a matter of great concern to people.
To prevent mosquitoes and other pests from biting, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends the use of insect repellents registered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The EPA-registered insect repellent has been evaluated by the agency and its safety and effectiveness when used in accordance with the instructions on the product label have been confirmed. The EPA also evaluates products to determine that they do not pose a risk to more vulnerable groups such as children and pregnant women.
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