What you need to know about malaria

09-Sep-2021 AOGRAND
On June 30, 2021, the World Health Organization issued a press release stating that China has officially obtained the World Health Organization’s certification for malaria elimination. This is a remarkable achievement for a country that reported 30 million cases of malaria every year in the 1940s. According to the standards of the World Health Organization, a country or region has no local malaria cases for 3 consecutive years, and an effective malaria rapid detection and monitoring system is established, and a malaria prevention and control plan is formulated to obtain the malaria elimination certification. China has had no reports of local primary malaria infections for 4 consecutive years since 2017, and it formally applied to the World Health Organization for national malaria elimination certification last year.

Background introduction
When the People's Republic of China was founded in 1949, there were 30 million cases of malaria, and the incidence was around 122 per 10,000. In 2003, in addition to vivax malaria and falciparum malaria in Yunnan and Hainan, the number of cases in each province was 30,000. After decades of work, until 2017, China achieved the goal of zero cases.
China's journey to eliminate malaria began in 1950. In 1967, the Chinese government launched the "523 Project", a nationwide research program aimed at finding new treatments for malaria. This work involved more than 500 scientists from 60 institutions, and finally discovered artemisinin in 1970. Artemisinin combination therapy is currently the most effective antimalarial drug.
In addition, China has established a national malaria and other infectious disease network reporting system and a malaria laboratory testing network, improved the malaria vector monitoring and malaria resistance monitoring system, and formulated the work strategy of "tracking clues, counting and pulling out sources", and explored and summarized The "1-3-7" work model of malaria reporting, investigation and disposal, that is, the completion of the epidemic report within 1 day after diagnosis, the completion of epidemiological investigations within 3 days, and the completion of the investigation and disposal of epidemic spots within 7 days are China's monitoring and elimination of malaria. The unique approach of this work model is officially written into the technical documents of the World Health Organization for global promotion and application.
So, what do you know about malaria? This article will help you understand the transmission routes, symptoms and preventive measures of malaria.
Malaria is one of the world's leading causes of death from infectious diseases. Malaria is a vector-borne disease caused by the infection of Plasmodium by the bite of Anopheles mosquitoes or transfusion of the blood of a person carrying the Plasmodium. The parasites responsible for spreading it develop from single-celled animals. After a long evolution, this parasite infects reptiles, birds, and mammals, then infects primates, and then infects humans through primates. This parasite is called Plasmodium, and the infectious disease it causes is called malaria.
Ways of transmission of malaria:
The occurrence and epidemic of malaria require three basic links, namely the source of infection, the vector and the susceptible population. The source of infection is a person with malaria with the gametophyte of the malaria parasite; the vector is an Anopheles mosquito with infected sporozoites after sucking the blood of a person with malaria; the susceptible person is a healthy person who can get the disease after being bitten by an infectious Anopheles. Only when the three links exist at the same time can the malaria epidemic occur; without any of these links, the malaria epidemic will end.
Malaria usually occurs frequently in summer and autumn, but in tropical and subtropical regions, it can occur throughout the year and is easy to spread. The prevalence of malaria is closely related to whether the local temperature and rainfall are suitable for the development and reproduction of mosquitoes and malaria parasites. During the malaria epidemic season, the climate is warm and the rainfall is heavy, and mosquitoes can reproduce in large numbers. People in non-malaria-endemic areas have weak resistance to malaria and are susceptible to malaria when they enter endemic areas. Patients or carriers in endemic areas can easily spread malaria when they enter non-endemic areas. Therefore, population movement is likely to cause the spread of malaria. In addition, due to damage to the placenta or during the delivery process, the blood of the mother suffering from malaria or the plasmodium contaminates the wound of the fetus, which is passed from the mother to the fetus, causing congenital malaria, which can also be transmitted by blood transfusion.
Symptoms of malaria:
The typical malaria episodes in adults are divided into chills or chills, fever, sweating, and intermittent periods. A few days before the onset, there may be different degrees of fever every day or the next day. At the same time, there are prodromal symptoms such as fatigue, headache, low back, muscle aches, anorexia, general or abdominal discomfort, mild diarrhea, and chills. Falciparum malaria is more dangerous. It can cause symptoms such as severe anemia, acute renal failure or coma, which can cause great harm to the human body. If it is not diagnosed and treated in time, it can even be life-threatening. This type of malaria is characterized by a ferocious, dangerous condition and a high mortality rate. Malaria fever in infants and young children is often irregular, and there may be no chills before fever. Convulsions are often prone to occur during high fever.
How to prevent malaria?
As a major global infectious disease, malaria has always threatened human health. The World Health Organization's 2020 Malaria Report pointed out that in 2019, there were an estimated 228 million malaria cases and 409,000 deaths worldwide. Among them, Africa accounted for 94% of the world's cases and deaths. Africa is still the region with the heaviest malaria burden in the world.
With the increasing frequency of international exchanges, the number of my country's entry and exit persons who go to Africa, Southeast Asia and other countries with high risk of malaria to export labor services, travel or study, etc. has increased significantly. In recent years, cases of high-risk malaria infection from abroad to domestic disease have increased year by year, and imported malaria epidemics have become more prominent. Malaria is still one of the most serious infectious diseases that harm the health of Chinese residents. Malaria prevention still cannot be slackened.
The main means of preventing malaria is to cut off the transmission route and prevent mosquito bites. Therefore, the prevention of malaria is mainly to control mosquitoes. The main target of mosquito control is the mosquito population that is the vector of the disease. Control methods mainly include environmental control, physical control, and chemical control.
Environmental governance includes environmental improvement and environmental treatment, such as improving environmental sanitation, filling up ponds or ponds around villages with sand, removing waste containers that may accumulate water, and removing weeds on the edge of ditch to make water. Speed up the speed and other methods to eliminate mosquito breeding grounds, etc., and do not give mosquitoes living space; at the same time, try to keep the room dry and bright, because mosquitoes like to live in a dark and humid environment.
Physical control is the use of various mechanical, thermal, light, sound, and electrical methods to kill, isolate or drive away mosquitoes. People hang mosquito nets while sleeping, which is a physical method to prevent mosquitoes. Installing screen doors and screen windows at home can effectively prevent mosquitoes from entering the room. Wear light-colored clothes for outdoor sports. When you are active in places with a lot of mosquitoes, try to wear light-colored long-sleeved clothes and wear socks. This will not only reduce human mosquito contact, but mosquitoes can feel the humidity of human skin and the skin Reduced volatiles will also reduce bites.
Chemical control is the use of insecticides, repellents and other compounds to kill and drive away mosquitoes. For example, use insecticide to spray the inner walls of the house to kill mosquitoes, use insecticide to spray the room before going to bed; apply mosquito repellent to the skin at dusk to prevent mosquitoes from leaving, light mosquito coils to smoke mosquitoes, etc. It should be noted that you must pay attention to safety when you reuse it, and do not let infants and young children touch it.
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